Annotated Bibliography



Adams, Amy
1994 “Surrealism and Sulijuk: Fantastic Carvings of Povungnituk and European Surrealism,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 9, no. 4 (Winter):4-10

A comparison of the so-called “fantastic” sculpture made in Povungnituk for a short time in Puvirnituq – as a result of a contest organized by an anthropologist – with the work of European Surrealists.

Aullus, Arne
1986 “Povungnituk 1986,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 1, no. 3 (Fall):11-12

A printmaker from France who was studying in Montreal reviewed the Puvirnituq collection, which, she concludes, reveals changed attitudes in the community as it clings to the past at the same time as it tries to embrace modernity.



Bilan, Robert
1988 “Mythmakers: Davidialuk & Talirunili,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 3, no. 3 (Summer):17-18

This exhibition was held at the Winnipeg Art Gallery from May 28 to November 13, 1988 to honour what the reviewer calls “two deceased Povungnituk giants.” He compares the styles of the two artists and the differing ways they handled myths in their artwork.

Brochu, Michel
1966 “Maricourt: Haut lieu de la sculpture eskimaude de Nouveau-Quebec,” Vie des Arts, no. 42, printemps:14-17, 63, 66

Maricourt was the French name for Wakeham Bay, which has since been changed to Kangiqsujuaq.

Butler, Sheila
1977 “Images from Povungnituk,” Arts Manitoba, vol. 1, no. 1, January-February:22-23



Craig, Mary
1987 “Inuit and Kenyan Artists Share Experiences,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 2, no. 4 (Fall):10

A short account of Jimmy Arnimissak’s 1986 visit to the Kisii district of Kenya, Africa, to work with carver Elkana Ong’esa, who later went to Inukjuak to work with Arnimissak.



Ellis, Scott
1990 “Women and Art in Salluit: The Early Sculpture,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 5, no. 2 (Spring):33-37

Review of an exhibition at the Winnipeg Art Gallery (January 27-September 2, 1990). Art by women predominated in the exhibition, and the reviewer speculates that this reflected the fact that carving was considered to be a woman’s activity in Salluit, a community relatively isolated from other art producing communities where men played a greater role.



Fox, Matthew
1997 “Peter Murdoch: Pioneer of the Co-op Movement,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 12, no. 4 (Winter):18-21

Written upon his retirement, this is an account of Peter Murdoch’s 50 years working as a trading post manager for the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) and, later, as General Manager of La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec (FCNQ), which he founded in 1965. Murdoch began his career in 1947, at the age of 17, when he was sent by the HBC to Kimmirut. He subsequently worked for the company in several other arctic communities, but it was in Puvirnituq that he encouraged people to set aside a portion of the income they received for carvings to buy tools and equipment that could be used communally. This was a new concept that led to the formation of one of the first Inuit cooperatives, which then became a founding member of FCNQ, a service and development agency for Nunavik cooperatives, now based in Montreal.

Fox, Matthew and Maria von Finckenstein
1997 “Curator’s Choice: Noah Echalook and Simeonie Elijassiapik,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 12, no. 4 (Winter):10-15

Short biographies by IAQ staff writer Fox of two prominent Inukjuak artists. Each is followed by a selection of artwork (six pieces by Echalook and four by Elijassiapik) with lengthy captions by art historian von Finckenstein.



George, Jane
2002 “Sammy Kudluk: Making a Name for Himself in Acrylic,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 17, no. 2 (Summer):19

A short piece on this multi-media (pen and ink drawings, bone and stone sculpture, stained glass windows, et al) artist living in Kuujjuaq.

Goetz, Helga
1977 The Inuit Print. Ottawa: National Museum of Man, National Museums of Canada

Accompanied an exhibition organized by the museum and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. This large book, in English and French, presents the history and the art of the five arctic printmaking studios. Povungnituk and a few short-lived projects in other Nunavik centres are dealt with together. Knowledgeable commentary and copious illustrations make this an invaluable text.

Graburn, Nelson H.H.
1969 Eskimos without Igloos: Social and Economic Development in Sugluk: Boston: Little Brown and Company

An anthropological study of history and economic and social change among the Inuit living on the south coast of the Hudson Strait, with a focus on Salluit, which the author visited in 1959, 1964, and 1968.

1987 “The Discovery of Inuit Art: James Houston—Animateur,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 2, no. 2 (Spring):3-5

An account of Houston’s work in Inukjuak, where he encouraged Inuit to make carvings for sale, and the efforts he made to promote Inuit art.



Iglauer, Edith
1979 Inuit Journey. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre (first published in 1966 as The New People: The Eskimo’s Journey into Our Time.)

An account of the beginnings of the cooperative movement, written by a journalist who travelled to Kangisujjuaq (George River) to observe the meeting at which the first Canadian arctic cooperative was formed.

Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ)
1998 Special Issue: Making Art in Nunavik, vol. 13, no. 3 (Fall):3-46

Includes an historical overview and commentary by Inuit on the beginnings of the co-op and carving activities in Nunavik. Several artists are featured in the “Focus on” department: Jobie Ohaituq, Daniel Inukpuk, Nutaraaluk Iyaituk, Jimmy Arnamissak, and Charlie Inukpuk. Guest editorial by Mattiusi Iyaituk of Ivujivik.

1991 “Promotional Support for Inuit Art in Quebec,” in Inuit Art World, a special edition of Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 5, no. 4 & vol. 6, no. 1 (Fall 1990/Winter 1991):42

A brief discussion of the Quebec government’s support of Inuit cooperatives in the northern areas of the province, where the bureaucracy elected to work with La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec and Avataq Cultural Institute, rather than becoming directly involved in development, as was the practice in the Northwest Territories.

1990 “Profile: Johnny Inukpuk,” vol. 5, no. 3 (Summer):52

A one-page thumbnail sketch of a well known artist from Inukjuak, summarizing his exhibitions and honours, as well as including published references about him, and holdings in public collections. The cover of this issue features a sculpture, entitled Mother Nursing Child (1962), from the Toronto-Dominion Bank collection.

Inukpuk, Charlie
1996 “The Contemporary Living Art,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring):13-14

This is an excerpt from an interview with the artist by Louis Gagnon, recorded in Inukjuak in 1995. Inukpuk talks about his early life and how he started to carve, and concludes with comments about being discouraged by the small income he is able to earn from carving.

Inuktitut Magazine
1984 “Interview with Thomassie Kudluk,” (Spring).

Inukpuk-Iqaluk, Martha
1996 “Elisapee Inukpuk: I Enjoy Dollmaking Immensely,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 11, no. 4 (Winter):10-13

Elisapee Inukpuk, an outstanding dollmaker, is interviewed by her niece. She talks about her early life, and details the labour-intensive work of making dolls. Some of her soft sculpture depicts stories, while others depict everyday activity. She strives for accuracy of detail and uses grass and skins, materials that must be worked in the same way as they would if they were to be used in making life-size garments and utensils. It includes several illustrations of her work.

Iyaituk, Mattiusi
1996 “The Contemporary Living Art,” a feature in Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring):4-5

Comments are from an interview by Dave Depper, recorded in Ottawa, February 1995, for inclusion in a video for the Inuit Art Foundation. Iyaituk talks about learning to carve and about current artist practice in his home community of Ivujivik where there is a lack of tools and materials. He also talks about the inspiration for his work, and the need for artists to feel free in exploring new subjects and techniques.



Kasadluak, Paulosie
1977 Nothing Marvellous,” in Port Harrison/Inoucdjouac (catalogue). Jean Blodgett (ed). Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery: 21

This oft-quoted essay is by a resident of Inukjuak who was, for many years, President of La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec. It was written in Inuktitut, translated by Aliva Tulugak, and edited by Marybelle Myers (Mitchell). Tulugak stresses the practical necessity of carving and the focus on everyday life.

Knight, Frederica Woodrow
1990 “Arctic Quebec, 1949,” in The First Passionate Collector: The Ian Lindsay Collection of Inuit Art, Darlene Coward Wight ed. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery:27-30

A firsthand account, in English and French, of everyday life in Nunavik, by a teacher who lived in the Arctic for 30 years, and was fluent in Inuktitut. She resided in Inukjuak between 1948-49, when James Houston made his first visits to Nunavik. Several Nunavik artists are mentioned in the article, which includes a photograph of Akeeaktashuk (Inukjuak 1948) and a group shot taken at the same time.

Kudluk, Henry
1997 “Johnny Aculiak: ‘It seems to me that our culture will die off one day if we do not keep carving,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 12, no. 4 (Winter):24-28

A lengthy telephone interview conducted in Inuktitut by an Inuit Art Foundation employee. Aculiak, a prominent Inukjuak carver, talks about quarrying stone and about trying to encourage young people to make art. He also makes interesting comments about a 1987 trip he took to Russia to meet with indigenous artists. He was impressed with the high quality of their ivory carvings and the fact that they have to make their own tools.

Kunnuk, Simeonie
1997 “Lucy Meeko: ‘Only the mind can put something into motion,’” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 12, no. 2 (Summer):26-29

Inuit Art Foundation employee Kunnuk conducted a telephone interview in Inuktitut with Kuujjuarapik artist Lucy Meeko on June 9, 1994. She talks about how she started carving and her early life, and concludes with the problems she has finding masks to protect herself from breathing carving dust.

1997 “Jimmy Arnamissak: ‘Leaving something that people remember you by,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 12, no. 1 (Spring):26-29

Transcript of a telephone interview conducted in Inuktitut by Inuit Art Foundation employee Kunnuk. Arnamissak of Inukjuak talks about his career as a carver, which began when he was a young teenager. He also talks about the difficulty of acquiring carvingstone and of earning a living by selling artwork. This is offset by the advantages of being your own boss, setting your own hours, and the simple enjoyment of the work. Article includes several examples of his art from the mid-1980s.



Lalonde, Christine
2004 “Every Picture tells a Story by Josie Papialuk,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 19, no. 1 (Spring):26-28

The curator of an exhibition of the same name at the National Gallery of Canada from November 7, 2003 to April 18, 2004, discusses the drawings of Papialuk, a graphic artist from Puvirnituq, now deceased. This was his only solo exhibition in a public gallery, and one of the few solo exhibitions of any Inuit artist.

Lean, Cheryl
1986 “Inuit Images of Man: Sculpture of Sugluk (1950-59), Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring):11

Review of a show at the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia in Halifax (and circulating). The exhibition was the first survey of early Sugluk sculpture.

Lindsay, Ian
1977 “Davidialuk of Povungnituk: Mythmaker,” (Foreword) in Davidialuk. Marybelle Myers ed. Montreal: La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec

Written a month after Davidialuk’s death in August 1976, this short piece (English and French) pays tribute to the artist’s creativity and the visual record he left behind concerning the lives and thoughts of his people.



Mitchell (Myers), Marybelle
2004 “The Life and Times of Josie P. Papialuk,” in Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 19, no. 1 (Spring):19-23

A biographical sketch of the artist on the occasion of his solo exhibition at the National Gallery of Canada (November 7, 2003 - April 18, 2004). Although he made some carvings, he was best known for his prints and drawings depicting personal stories in eccentric ways. He famously included the movements of wind and creatures in his work.

2001 “On Printmaking in Nunavik,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 16, no. 1 (Spring):3

An editorial that reflects on the history of printmaking in Nunavik and includes candid comments on the problems with, and lack of importance given to this activity in the Nunavik cooperative system, which was mainly concerned with maximizing economic development.

1998 “Making Art in Nunavik: A Brief Historical Overview,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ),” vol. 13, no. 3 (Fall):4-17

The text is by IAQ editor, Marybelle Mitchell, who had been in charge of art and craft development for Nunavik cooperatives in the 1970s and 80s. Text is illustrated with several examples of Nunavik art, selected by curator Maria von Finckenstein, who also provided captions.

1996 From Talking Chiefs to a Native Corporate Elite: The Birth of Class and Nationalism among Canadian Inuit. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press

An academic treatise analysing the transformations attendant upon first contact with explorers and traders to the settlement of land claims with Canada. Of particular interest is the material on Nunavik cooperatives and the settling of land claims in that region. The book contains much detail, drawn from experience and research, about cooperatives and their role in fostering relations of inequality among Canadian Inuit.

1995 Paulosie Sivuak Talks about the Beginning of Carving in Povungnituk, in Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter):52-59

A lengthy interview conducted in Puvirnituq May 2, 1985, with Aliva Tulugak translating. Sivuak, who was instrumental in the Nunavik cooperative movement, talks about meeting James Houston and about starting to carve. He makes interesting comments about the tools then available and about the various booklets sent to Inuit by government bodies encouraging them to carve and to start co-ops. He also provides information about the various advisors who were in the community, including missionary Father Steinmann, HBC manager Peter Murdoch, and printmaker Gordon Yearsley. He ends with an expression of disappointment at the direction taken by the cooperatives and the shift in power between the Inuit co-ops and the non-Inuit staff of La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec.

1994 “Fivecentsiapik: The Little Five Cents,” in Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 9, no. 3 (Fall):51-57

Excerpt of a 1985 interview with Peter Murdoch, then General Manager of La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec. He talks about his many postings as clerk for the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC), starting with Lake Harbour (Kimmirut) at the age of 17. He subsequently worked in Pangnirtung, Cape Dorset, Payne Bay, George River, Fort Chimo, Clyde River, and Pond Inlet. In 1955, he was posted to Puvirnituq, where he was instrumental in laying the groundwork for a cooperative incorporated in 1960. The interview focusses on this period, and contains some clarification and a postscript from Murdoch.

1988 “The Iyaituk Brothers: Nutaraaluk and Mattiusi,” in Inuit Art: An Anthology, H. Burgess ed. Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer Publishing:64-75

In spite of having both been born in snow houses, Nutaraaluk has taken a conventional approach to making art, while the younger brother, Mattiusi, actively pursued more modern techniques and forms.

1987 “A Conversation with Nutaraaluk Iyaituk,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 2, no. 2 (Spring):7-9

This interview was conducted in May 1985, in Inuktitut with Aliuva Tulugak as interpreter. Iyaituk, who lived in Ivujivik, talks extensively about the quarrying and carving processes, working with the co-op, and describes what life is like for Inuit post-land claims.

1986 “Young Artist: Aliva Tulugak,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring):5-6

An edited excerpt from an interview conducted in May 1985, in which Tulugak reflected upon attitudes towards making art and changes in the way of life in his home community of Povungnituk.

1984 “Inuit Arts and Crafts Cooperatives in the Canadian Arctic,” Canadian Ethnic Studies, 16 (3):132-53

Addresses the organization of Inuit arts and craft sales in a state-sponsored cooperative system. Argues that the tension between individuals and the collective reflects the distinction between art and crafts made by the market.

1982 “Josie Papialook,” in The Beaver, Summer:22-29; in Inuit Art: An Anthology, H. Burgess ed. Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer Publishing:76-83

A discussion of the eccentric work of now-deceased Josie Papialook of Povungnituk. Includes many colour reproductions of his work, including some of his quirky conventions, such as circling flaws in the stone.

1980 Things Made by Inuit. Montreal: La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec

Book accompanying an exhibition organized by the author to travel to Nunavik communities. Designed to present the full range of Inuit arts and crafts: carvings, prints, and drawings, musical instruments, garments, baskets, games, household equipment, and hunting tools. Many objects were especially created for the exhibition, which has since travelled to Europe. English and Inuktitut.

1977 “The People of Povungnituk, Independent through a Common Effort,” in Povungnituk, Jean Blodgett ed. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery:7-18

A history of the community and the formation of the cooperative. Informed comments about the involvement of the Roman Catholic missionary and the French government, as well as  community attitudes towards art and the few artists, such as Joe Talirunili, whose personal expressiveness came to be highly valued.

“In the Wake of the Giant,” in Port Harrison/Inoucdjouac, Jean Blodgett ed. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery:13-20

A history of the community and the development of a cooperative in 1967. Comments on the attitudes towards artmaking and an account of the short lived printmaking studio.

A Grace Beyond the Reach of Art, Joe Talirunili, ed. Montreal: La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec

Biographical information and many illustrations of sculpture, drawings, and prints by this important artist. Essays by Marybelle Myers (Mitchell) and Johnny Povungnituk are included with stories by the artist. English and some Inuktitut.

1976 “A Brief History of Printmaking in Arctic Quebec,” in Povungnituk. Montreal: La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec: unpaged

An account of the Povungnituk printmaking studio and its various advisors, as well as a record of printmaking efforts in other Nunavik centres. Written in the immediate aftermath of the deaths of three important artists – Joe Talirunili, Davidialuk, and Juanisialuk –, the author makes candid comments about the obstacles to sustaining printmaking in Nunavik.

1975 “A Time for Catching Caribou and a Time for Making Clothes,” in Crafts from Arctic Canada, Ottawa: Canadian Eskimo Arts Council:26-30

Included in the catalogue of an exhibition of Inuit crafts, this essay discusses the transformation of pre-contact artisanal skills used by women to provide clothing for their family, to the making of handicrafts for sale in a foreign market. English, French, and Inuktitut.

“Reveil Culturel Chez les Femmes de l’Arctique Quebecois,” north/nord, vol. 22, no. 5 (September-October):22-25

This essay, written in English and translated into French, is about Nunavik women reviving old skills of basketry and sealskin appliqué, which had been nearly forgotten.

“Remembering: Cash crops out of old grass,” north/nord, vol. 22, no. 5 (September-October):26-29

Report of a craft-making workshop organized by La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec in Great Whale River (Kuujuarapik) from men living in villages along the East Coast of Hudson Bay.

“The Women of Arctic Quebec,” in Inuit Women in Transition, accompanying a multi-media exhibition of the same name. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs

An essay about the revival of pre-contact crafts.

1974 “L’art de la gravure au Nouveau-Quebec,” in north/nord, vol. 22, no. 2 (March-April):17-21

Information about the beginning of printmaking in Povungnituk in 1961, and some workshops held with artists from other Nunavik communities who also wanted to “make pictures.” The article was written in English and translated into French.

“Soapstone Carving and the Co-Op Movement in Arctic Quebec,” Arts & Culture of the North, vol. 3, no. 4 (August):181-2

“People Who Know How to Dream,” in north/nord, vol. 22, no. 2 (March-April):32-35

An early attempt to say something useful about the meaning Inuit find in their artwork beyond its commercial value. Includes several unidentified illustrations of sculpture from Povungnituk, including what came to be known as “mythological” or “fantastic” carvings.

1970 “The Co-operative Movement in Arctic Quebec,” Canadian Co-operative Digest, vol. 13, no. 3 (Fall):21-27

An account of the establishment of cooperatives in Nunavik, and the operating philosophy of La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec, which was based on the premise that remedies for poverty in northern communities depended upon the indigenous peoples being “responsible for and productively involved in the solution of their economic problems.”

Murdoch, Peter
1956 “Seeguapik: Artist,” in The Beaver, Winter:24-31

Photo essay with captions about Povungnituk artist Charlie Sivuarapik, written by the former Hudson’s Bay Company manager who knew the artist. Twelve illustrations.



Nungak, Zebedee and Eugene Arima
1969 Eskimo Stories - Unikkaatuat. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, Bulletin No. 235, Anthropological Series No. 90; Inuit Stories/legendes inuit povungnituk (English & French) issued in 1988, 1990, 1992, and 2000

As attested to by the many editions and versions, this is a highly popular collection of Inuit legends, illustrated with sculptures created by the storytellers who constitute a line-up of the most respected carvers in Povungnituk. The venture was initiated by missionary Andre Steinmann in 1958-9, who asked artists to make carvings depicting legends and to write the stories. The result was 68 carvings illustrating 46 myths, legends, and historical accounts.



Olson, Michael
2002 “Avataq Cultural Institute: Keeping Inuit Culture Afloat,” in Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 17, no. 2 (Summer):10-15

An overview of the cultural agency set up after the James Bay and Northern Quebec agreement to preserve Nunavik values and cultural artefacts.



Porteous-Safford, Clare and Michael Olson
2002 “Stirring the Pot: Nunavik Printmaking Workshop - Phase II,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 17, no. 2 (Summer):28-31

A second session of a module of a printmaking workshop organized by the Inuit Art Foundation was held for Nunavik artists in Cape Dorset, attended by only two of the participants in the first module.

2001 Revisiting Nunavik Printmaking,” in Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 16, no. 1 (Spring):4-12

An account of the first module of a printmaking workshop organized by the Inuit Art Foundation for five Nunavik artists who went to Cape Dorset to learn stencil, stonecut, and lithography techniques.



Roberts, A. Barry
1978 The Inuit Artists of Inoucdjouac, P.Q. Montreal: La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec

Historical essay with biographical notes on the artists. Residents are listed along with their disc numbers. Includes a selected bibliography and black and white illustrations.

1976 The Inuit Artists of Sugluk, P.Q. Montreal: La Fédération des Coopératives du Nouveau-Quebec

Historical essay with biographical notes on artists. The names of residents are listed along with their disc numbers. Includes a selected bibliography and black and white illustrations.

Routledge, Marie and Ingo Hessel
1990 “Regional Diversity in Contemporary Inuit Sculpture,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 5, no. 3 (Summer):11-23

An essay examining the distinctive features of artmaking in the Canadian arctic regions, including Nunavik, where artists are characterized as preferring illustrative and narrative sculpture. Their aim is to portray some truth or reality, but the expression varies from realistic to expressionistic. Discusses Joe Talirunili, Davidialuk Ammittuk, Johnny Inukpuk, and Thomassie Kudluk.



Saladin d”anglure, Bernard et al.
1978 La Parole Changee en Pierre. Vie et oeuvre de Davidialuk Alasuaq, artiste Inuit du Quebec arcticque. 11, les chaiers du patrimoine. Quebec: Gouvernement du Quebec. Ministere des Affaires culturelles

Essays about the life and work of an important Povungnituk artist. French, with 45 black and white and 20 colour illustrations.

Saucier, Celine
1998 Guardians of memory: Sculpture-Women of Nunavik. Quebec: Les editions de l’instant meme

English version of an adaptation from the author’s PhD thesis. A thorough discussion of the depiction of women in Nunavik sculpture from the 1950s through to the 1990s. Includes many illustrations.

Saucier, Celine & Eugen Kedl
1988 Image Inuit du Nouveau-Quebec. Quebec: Musée de la civilisation

This large book contains many photographs taken by Kedl of early sculpture from Nunavik. Text by art historian Celine Saucier is in French only. Material arranged by community and some common themes: hunting, fishing, and community life.

Seidelman, Harold and James Turner
1993 The Inuit Imagination. Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre

Organized around stories, with many colour reproductions of Nunavik art.

Sinclair, James
2006 “Metamorphosis: Eleven Artists from Nunavik,” in Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 21, no. 3 (Fall):30-34

A description of an exhibition at the Canadian Guild of Crafts, Montreal (May 25 to June 30, 2006). Celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Guild, it included 22 contemporary works on the theme of transformation. Featured artists: Jobie Arnaituk, Adamie Anautak, Aisa Amittu, Noah Echalook, Lucassie Echalook, Thomassie Echalook, Eli Elijasiapik, Joanasi Jack Itukalluk, Mattiusi Iyaituk, Tomasiapik Sivuarapik, and Jobie Uqaituk.

2005 “Saputik Cultural Centre: Resuscitating POV,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 20, no. 1 (Summer):18-22

An account of community efforts to revive art activity in Puvirnituq, which had once been a thriving centre for the arts, but had stopped making prints in 1989, and closed its museum in 1993 (shaped like an igloo, it had been founded in 1978 by Taamusi Qumaq Novalinga).

2004 “Noah Echalook: A super-real carver,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 19, no. 3 & 4 (Fall/Winter):81

A brief piece in a special artists’ edition of the magazine, with quotations from the artist about his work and a reproduction of The String Game (1986). Also includes a photograph of Echalook who lives in Inukjuak.

“Joshua Sivuarapik: Framing a Moving Picture,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 19, no. 1 (Fall/Winter):72

A short sketch of Puvirnituq artist Sivuarapik in a special issue of the magazine, featuring artists who participated in a public festival organized by the Inuit Art Foundation in March 2004. Includes a photograph of the artist and an untitled 1996 sculpture.

Sparshott, Francis
1986 “Eli Sallualuk of Povungnituk,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring):12

A review of an exhibition held at the Innuit Gallery of Eskimo Art in Toronto (September 14 - October 9, 1985). Sallualuk was one of the artists who responded to the call to make “imaginative” carvings, sometimes referred to as “fantastic.”

Speak, Dorothy
1989 “Povungnituk Graphics,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 4, no. 4 (Fall):26-28

The reviewer found the annual collection disappointing, with merit in only two of the twenty-seven prints released. Much of the review reflects on the history of this studio, which began in 1962. While there are some talented artists in the community, the conclusion is that help is needed if they are to produce a successful collection.



Tulugak, Aliva
1988 “Isah Qopakualuk Talks about Carvings and Co-ops,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 3, no. 3 (Summer):13-15

Qopakualuk, formerly an Anglican priest, was interviewed by Aliva Tulugak in Inuktitut on April 28, 1985. The 66-year-old carver talked about the beginning of making art in Povungnituk and about the formation of the co-op. He makes interesting comments about a meeting in Ottawa with Prime Minister John Diefenbaker in the 1950s.



Vallee, F.G.
1967 Povungnituk and its Cooperative: A Case Study in Community Change. Ottawa: Northern Coordination and Research Centre, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs

Using Povungnituk as a case study, the author analyses cooperatives as a social movement. A detailed history of the Povungnituk cooperative and its social and economic impact in the community.

1966 “The Co-operative Movement in the North,” in People of Light and Dark, Maja van Steensel ed. Ottawa: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development:43-8

1964 “Notes on the Cooperative Movement and Community Organization in the Canadian Arctic,” in Arctic Anthropology, 2, no. 2:45-9



Wight, Darlene Coward
1990 “The Handicrafts Experiment, 1949-1953,” in The First Passionate Collector: The Ian Lindsay Collection of Inuit Art. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery:45-92

A detailed account that draws on careful and ground breaking research into the beginning of contemporary Inuit art production. It clarifies and corrects the record from 1949-53, providing details and context, including reproductions of purchase receipts for objects purchased by Houston.

Watt, Virginia
1980 “The Beginning,” in Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec (a catalogue of the permanent collection). Montreal: Canadian Guild of Crafts Quebec:11-14

This short but cogent article presents useful data drawn from the archives of the Montreal Guild of Crafts, which presented the first exhibition of Inuit art in 1949. It covers the period preceding the exhibition and four years afterwards, quoting extensively from the guild’s record to explain the organization’s interest in developing Inuit art and crafts.



Yearsley, Gordon
1962 “The Artists of Povungnituk,” north/nord, vol. 9, no. 1, January-February: 28-9

Yearsley was the first print advisory to the Povungnituk printmaking studio.



Zimmerman, Werner
1987 “Povungnituk Graphics,” Inuit Art Quarterly (IAQ), vol. 2, no. 4 (Fall):14

A review by a printmaker who served for several years as art advisor to the Povungnituk print studio. He is critical of the stencils in the 1987 collection, although, for the most part, the collection meets with his approval. He also deplores the many mediocre prints by deceased artist Paulosie Sivuak, which were being issued after his death. He concludes that the present collection shows both the best and worst of what Povungnituk is capable of.